It lasted 6 minutes. Having said that, the type of tsunami it produced was pretty much the same, but with wave heights certainly not expected to exceed 3.0 metres and actually appearing to not exceed about 1.5 m in the … The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster left many lessons to be learned regarding Japan's disaster management policies. On Japan's east … Japan earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear disaster: 2011 review. Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy May 18, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41766 The great plates are rough and stick together, building up energy that is released as earthquakes. endstream endobj startxref It captured the moment of tsunami attack and contains important information of how the tsunami penetrated inland and local tsunami inundation flow characteristics. endstream endobj 98 0 obj <> endobj 99 0 obj <> endobj 100 0 obj <>stream (b) The extent of the tsunami inundation zone with the measurement of the run-up heights at tsunami inundation limit in Sendai Coast [23]. On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred 231 miles northeast of Tokyo. Japan’s earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning system is one of the most sophisticated -- and costliest -- in the world, befitting an economically … The variability in size and recurrence interval of great earthquakes in subduction zones cannot be well resolved with seismological studies only, especially for the occurrence of extreme events with a 500- to 1000-year recurrence interval. In dieser Riaküstenregion kam es zwischen dem 38. und 40. Even worse, in several communities, the radio or speaker system did not work because of the blackout caused by the earthquake. In general, a tsunami fragility curve is defined as structural damage probability or fatality rate with particular regard to the hydrodynamic features of tsunami inundation flow, such as flow depth obtained from field measurements, current velocity and hydrodynamic force estimated with tsunami numerical modelling [38]. The 2011 tsunami/earthquake In addition, a significant feature of the 2011 tsunami was the wide extent of the inundation zone; for example, on the Sendai plain (figure 2b), the tsunami inundated more than 5 km inland, causing devastating damage to populated areas and rice fields. by . U.S. Preparedness for Catastrophic Nuclear Power Plant Accidents and the U.S. Capacity to Protect Children With Appropriate Availability of Potassium Iodide Dr. Irwin Redlener Washington, March 29, 2011 I join Congressman Edward Markey today to highlight my concerns on overall U.S. readiness for the possibility of a catastrophic nuclear power plant accident and to underscore the particular failure to protect children by appropriate availability of potassium iodide (KI) needed to prevent cancer in those w… Author: Wendy Sue Swanson, MD, MBE. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cooling system was damaged, raising fears of a meltdown. 3. 113 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<96A81971238E1037A245EF4704FB4BE4>]/Index[97 33]/Info 96 0 R/Length 85/Prev 341940/Root 98 0 R/Size 130/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Seawalls or coastal structures should be designed with the assumption of overtopping and resiliency, and communities should not rely on coastal infrastructures alone for protection. Even in Onagawa town, 28 people were saved inside the boiler room of a five-storey RC building which was totally submerged by the tsunami inundation flow. The most important lesson is that one should not wait for official information to act: strong ground shaking is the first alert to take action. G>c�A'�}�5b�� e,�?s;���~��>b���$[�j��)�2��;�L�&x�ph�xE�h��>�u}��VJ-�KX�_ �Xx3b�W������U�(ſ�}�OV83\7@��8;��N�!vJwH��q�wU�b/p_�E��Č��:���2�/^��y��s�*8��L�أQ�]�Ϧ��rh#L# �OoH��b�G��tki Ȕ����4��e�'��.p�ֵ9��D�Si}r޳��c��V�6 ���X��j�����h��q���[j2~2M$�)��ŀ���t9��t�Anq�A��� }���6��M�"�l�N^�n��(�YJ�l,��S��a�t���SR���!�\��PxB'��}t�ks�o w�D��r1���宜��lY�[��d�Տ��\�D��E��\ߎ���Iq��H��5n�U3}ξ��E9��o�Ӝ��j�衪.=]�L�RG�j���D�ڣ�ÏM��7�}0�}� As a result, they have been drastically changed to promote initiatives for building national resilience with the aim of creating safe and secure national lands, regions and economic society that have strength and flexibility, in any disasters. (a) Tsunami hazard map published for Kesennuma city, Miyagi prefecture. The 6.3 m s−1 of inundation flow of the ascending tsunami caused a drag force per unit meter width of 100 kN m−1 [32]. Most of the coastal villages on the Sanriku Coast were devastated again. Many of the tsunami walls protecting coastline villages were around 7 metres high, no where near big enough to stop the 10 metre high wall of water (the height of a three storey building) that hit the … The seawall was designed for Level 1 tsunami (the height equivalent to the historical tsunami heights in the past 150 years and storm surge heights in the past 50 years). Consequently, all the instrumentation and control systems at reactors 1–4 were lost, and a series of explosions occurred, causing extensive radioactive contamination. Japan poorly prepared for tsunami nuclear plant threat, says IAEA. We revisited the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami disaster specifically on the response and impact, and discussed the paradigm shift of Japan's tsunami disaster management policies and the perspectives for reconstruction. Governments can reduce risk, but communities must not become complacent. In the Shinkansen system's four-plus decades of whisking millions of people across Japan … The 2011 Tohoku event provided the first real test of the various technologies and countermeasures that Japan has been using to protect people during tsunamis. In … First, we review the pre-2011 Japan tsunami countermeasures developed from the experience of the past Sanriku tsunami events. The geological and historical evidence of irregularly recurring earthquakes in Japan is discussed elsewhere in this issue [2], while the Fukushima accident is discussed in [3]. That makes it the fifth largest recorded worldwide since 1900, according to the U.S. Geolo… Based on this new reconstruction plan in the tsunami-affected area, Sendai city has formulated its tsunami evacuation plan [50] to protect lives. It was widely believed that Japan was one of the most prepared countries in the world for tsunami events. School buildings should have similar construction requirements, in order to ensure children's safety. All across northern Japan they felt it. Many field surveys were conducted to identify the damage mechanisms of structures and their impact [27,34,35]. Thanks to the recent advances of hand-held video cameras and mobile phones, however, many tsunami survivors have attempted to capture the moment of tsunami attack on their communities and have uploaded videos to the Internet (we should note that taking photos or videos of a tsunami should only ever be done from a position uphill, never from a beach). In the 2011 tsunami/earthquake, some damage could have been avoided if Japan were as prepared for the tsunami as they were for the earthquake. Receiving the tsunami warning from JMA, some residents claimed that they thought they were safe based on the 3 m estimation: they did not feel that they had to evacuate, as they felt safe behind a 10 m seawall. In addition to the 1896 Meiji and the 1933 Sanriku tsunamis which killed 22 000 and 3000 people, respectively, the experiences of the 1959 Ise-wan super typhoon (Vera) and the 1960 Chilean earthquake tsunami strongly motivated Japan to develop coastal protection infrastructures of seawalls and breakwaters. Using the video taken by a resident from the top of the reinforced concrete (RC) building in Onagawa harbour, the flow velocity of the tsunami inundation in Onagawa town when the houses in the town started being washed away was estimated as 6.3 m s−1 for the ascending tsunami and 7.5 m s−1 for the return flow at a flow depth of approximately 5 m. This observation implies, as the flow conditions of the subcritical flow of the ascending tsunami and the super-critical flow of the return flow, that the return flow in the first tsunami attack was slightly stronger than the leading tsunami. However, when implementing, this design paradigm has triggered conflict and debate. In this sense, the government policy of designing coastal protection is for the 150 year tsunami level, the so-called ‘Level 1’ or ‘Prevention Level’, ensuring that coastal protection will prevent tsunamis from penetrating inland to protect lives and properties (or economic activities). This was the first stage of using computer simulations in tsunami science and engineering. However, note that the tsunami (the 2011 scenario) will overtop even a 7.2 m seawall (designed for Level 1 tsunami) and the 6 m elevated road, and the model assumes no destruction of structures. Tsunami fragility curves for structural destruction (washed-away structures) [39]. Especially in Iwate prefecture, 10 m high seawalls have been built along the coast to protect communities that have been devastated many times throughout history. (a) The measured heights of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami [22] and historical Sanriku earthquake tsunamis (1611, 1896 and 1933 events). %%EOF Theme issue ‘Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society’ compiled and edited by Utku Kanoglu, Vasily Titov, Eddie Bernard and Costas Synolakis, Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster, Geological and historical evidence of irregular recurrent earthquakes in Japan, A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan, Extreme inundation flows during the Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki tsunami, Validation and verification of Tsunami numerical models, Insights from the 2011 great Japan earthquake, Source process of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake with the combination of teleseismic and strong motion data, Traces of tsunami preserved in inter-tidal lacustrine and marsh deposits—some examples from northeast Japan, Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami, Tsunami-tendenko and morality in disasters, The new tsunami warning system of the Japan Meteorological Agency, perspectives on Tsunami hazard reduction, Earthquake early warning starts nationwide in Japan, Outline of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0)—tsunami warnings/advisories and observations, Nationwide post event survey and analysis of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami flow velocity measurements from survivor videos, The 2011 Japan tsunami current velocity measurements from survivor videos at Kesennuma Bay using LiDAR, Analysis of Tsunami flow velocities during the March 2011 Tohoku, Japan, The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami flow velocity estimation by the aerial video analysis and numerical modeling, The impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami disaster and implications to the reconstruction, Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami: performance of Tsunami countermeasures, coastal buildings, and Tsunami evacuation in Japan, Overview of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami damage and its relation to coastal protection along the Sanriku coast, Were coastal defensive structures completely broken by an unexpectedly large Tsunami? All that remains of the lighthouse is the foundation and part of the concrete seawall. This phrase encourages people to escape by making individual decisions and taking personal responsibility; every individual effort increases the possibility of surviving. (b) Result of tsunami numerical modelling to evaluate the effect of the proposed reconstruction plan in Sendai city (maximum flow depth). [26] analysed survivor videos and measured flow velocities of about 10 m s−1 for the inundation flow that penetrated through the city [26], and produced a hydrograph of the tsunami. Japan's tsunami warning service, set up in 1952, consists of 300 sensors around the archipelago, including 80 aquatic sensors that monitor seismic activity 24/7. Having experienced several tsunamis in recorded history, Japan is better-prepared for such events than perhaps any other country. 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