"Tsarist Russia at War: The View from Above, 1914–February 1917", Lyandres, Semion, and Andrei Borisovich Nikolaev. Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented. This resulted in a growing criticism of the government, including an increased participation of workers in revolutionary parties. These staggering losses played a definite role in the mutinies and revolts that began to occur. As a result, they tended to hoard their grain and to revert to subsistence farming. Increasing peasant disturbances and sometimes actual revolts occurred, with the goal of securing ownership of the land they worked. It began during the First World War, with the February Revolution that was focused in and around the then-capital, Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg). Russian … World War I added to the chaos. This did not happen in 1917. The conditions during the war resulted in a devastating loss of morale within the Russian army and the general population of Russia itself. Dissatisfaction with Russian autocracy culminated in the huge national upheaval that followed the Bloody Sunday massacre of January 1905, in which hundreds of unarmed protesters were shot by the Tsar's troops. Also, the problem of shortages was largely solved by a major effort to increase domestic production. [34], Soviet membership was initially freely elected, but many members of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, anarchists, and other leftists created opposition to the Bolsheviks through the Soviets themselves. we can then answer definitely enough: Conscious and tempered workers educated for the most part by the party of Lenin. By 1914, 40% of Russian workers were employed in factories of 1,000+ workers (32% in 1901). Majority of deputies of the Petrograd Soviet approve a Bolshevik resolution for an all-socialist government excluding the bourgeoisie. Vladimir Lenin during the Russian Revolution, 1917. Several revolts were initiated against the Bolsheviks and their army near the end of the war, notably the Kronstadt Rebellion. Elects Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK), headed by Mensheviks and SRs. Strikers in Petrograd protest at the deaths in Ivánovo-Voznesénsk. ", Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. and Mark D. Steinberg, Gatrell, Peter. [56] Marxism was manifested in Vietnam as early as the Spring of 1925 when the Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League was established, with the league being described as "first truly Marxist organization in Indochina"[57] The domino effect caused more concern among Western countries in regards to Communism in Southeast Asia. Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar. A council of workers called the St. Petersburg Soviet was created in this chaos. Mongol conquest • Grand Duchy of Moscow, February Revolution • Provisional Government To the question, Who led the February revolution? [32], Liberal and monarchist forces, loosely organized into the White Army, immediately went to war against the Bolsheviks' Red Army, in a series of battles that would become known as the Russian Civil War. [5], All these factors had given rise to a sharp loss of confidence in the regime, even within the ruling class, growing throughout the war. Russia consisted mainly of poor farming peasants and substantial inequality of land ownership, with 1.5% of the population owning 25% of the land. Casualty rates were the most vivid sign of this disaster. "Doklad petrogradskogo okhrannogo otdeleniia osobomu otdelu departamenta politsii" ["Report of the Petrograd Okhrana to the Special Department of the Department of the Police"], October 1916, Krasnyi arkhiv 17 (1926), 4–35 (quotation 4). What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? 1st Kronstadt [ ru] 2nd Kronstadt [ ru] Tikhoretskaya [ ru] The Russian Revolution of 1905, also known as the First Russian Revolution, was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. Since the Age of Enlightenment, Russian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and the rectitude of democratic representation. Novgorod Republic • Vladimir-Suzdal In July 1915, a Central War Industries Committee was established under the chairmanship of a prominent Octobrist, Alexander Guchkov (1862–1936), including ten workers' representatives. At the same time, rising prices led to demands for higher wages in the factories, and in January and February 1916, revolutionary propaganda, in part aided by German funds, led to widespread strikes. Historian Ian Beckett suggests around 12,000 could be regarded as reliable, but even these proved reluctant to move in on the crowd, since it included so many women. The Bolsheviks, who came to be known as the Communists, renamed the country from The Russian. [citation needed], Though Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik Party, it has been argued that since Lenin was not present during the actual takeover of the Winter Palace, it was really Trotsky's organization and direction that led the revolution, merely spurred by the motivation Lenin instigated within his party. During the early morning of 16 July, Nicholas, Alexandra, their children, their physician, and several servants were taken into the basement and shot. [43] These tribunals established themselves more so from the Cheka as a more moderate force that acted under the banner of revolutionary justice, rather than a utilizer of strict brute force as the former did. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Le Batard rehires laid-off ESPN producer after 'hurtful' cuts. Russians retreat in panic, sacking the town of. Official Soviet demonstration in Petrograd for unity is unexpectedly dominated by Bolshevik slogans: "Down with the Ten Capitalist Ministers", "All Power to the Soviets". By the spring of 1915, the army was in steady retreat, which was not always orderly; desertion, plundering, and chaotic flight were not uncommon. Although many ordinary Russians joined anti-German demonstrations in the first few weeks of the war, hostility toward the Kaiser and the desire to defend their land and their lives did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for the Tsar or the government.[9][10][11]. [14] The next day, a series of meetings and rallies were held for International Women's Day, which gradually turned into economic and political gatherings. One year later, the Tsar and his entire family were executed. One of the Tsar's principal rationales for risking war in 1914 was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost amid the debacles of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds" (Bolsheviks), the "Whites" (counter-revolutionaries), the independence movements, and other socialist factions opposed to the Bolsheviks. The situation climaxed with the October Revolution in 1917, a Bolshevik-led armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that successfully overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets. By 1916, however, the situation had improved in many respects. Liberal parties too had an increased platform to voice their complaints, as the initial fervor of the war resulted in the Tsarist government creating a variety of political organizations. Daniel Orlovsky, "Corporatism or democracy: the Russian Provisional Government of 1917. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. 2 March], on behalf of himself, and then, having taken advice on behalf of his son, the Tsarevich. Moscow Soviet elects executive committee and new presidium, with Bolshevik majorities, and the Bolshevik, Third coalition government formed. Kronstadtin kapina 1921 ja sen perilliset Suomessa (Kronstadt Rebellion 1921 and Its Descendants in Finland) by Erkki Wessmann. The Fall of Imperial Russia Imperial Russia in 1914 was … Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks ("Ones of the Majority") led by Vladimir Lenin. The diversity of action that constituted the peasant revolutions, however, means that we cannot typecast its leaders — some rural revolutions drew in the whole village community, women led some, and a handful of wealthier villages led others. Lenin was of the opinion that taking power should occur in both St. Petersburg and Moscow simultaneously, parenthetically stating that it made no difference which city rose up first, but expressing his opinion that Moscow may well rise up first. They were led by Vladimir Lenin and a group of revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks' role in stopping the attempted coup further strengthened their position. More of my countrymen suffered horrific crimes at the blood-stained hands than any people, or nation ever suffered in the entirety of human history. Victorious, they reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In August, poor and misleading communication led General Lavr Kornilov, the recently appointed Supreme Commander of Russian military forces, to believe that the Petrograd government had already been captured by radicals, or was in serious danger thereof. Nicholas ignored these warnings and Russia's Tsarist regime collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of 1917. The October Revolution was led by Lenin and was based upon the ideas of Karl Marx. In the chaos, members of the Duma, Russia's parliament, assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The Tsar is warned that his army will not support him against a revolution. They viewed their role as limited to pressuring hesitant "bourgeoisie" to rule and to introduce extensive democratic reforms in Russia (the replacement of the monarchy by a republic, guaranteed civil rights, a democratic police and army, abolition of religious and ethnic discrimination, preparation of elections to a constituent assembly, and so on). by means of revolution). Meanwhile Germany was able to produce great amounts of munitions whilst constantly fighting on two major battlefronts.[4]. With a firm belief that his power to rule was granted by Divine Right, Nicholas assumed that the Russian people were devoted to him with unquestioning loyalty. [59] Since the fall of Communism (and the USSR) in Russia in 1991, the Western-Totalitarian view has again become dominant and the Soviet-Marxist view has practically vanished. Most importantly, workers living in cities were exposed to new ideas about the social and political order. George Orwell's classic novella Animal Farm is an allegory of the Russian Revolution and its aftermath. 26 February], when the Tsar ordered the army to suppress the rioting by force, troops began to revolt. The first day of the Russian Revolution – 8 March (23 February in the old Russian calendar) – was International Women’s Day, an important day in the socialist calendar. Kerensky was: [27] In the aftermath, Lenin fled to Finland under threat of arrest while Trotsky, among other prominent Bolsheviks, was arrested. The events of the revolution were a direct result of the growing conflict in World War I, but the significance of an empire collapsing and a people … Even after the 1905 Revolution spurred the Tsar to decree limited civil rights and democratic representation, he worked to limit even these liberties in order to preserve the ultimate authority of the crown. One interpretation of the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War is "America had lost a guerrilla war in Asia, a loss of caused by failure to appreciate the nuances of counterinsurgency war. [6], An elementary theory of property, believed by many peasants, was that land should belong to those who work on it. Nevertheless, by the end of 1916, morale among soldiers was even worse than it had been during the great retreat of 1915. Workers responded to the massacre with a crippling general strike, forcing Nicholas to put forth the October Manifesto, which established a democratically elected parliament (the State Duma). The Bolsheviks gained 25% of the vote. It was for this reason that on 11 March [O.S. Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party led the Russian revolution of 1917. He failed to look after the interest of the common man. ", This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 15:51. The resolution was passed 10–2 (Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev prominently dissenting) promoting the October Revolution. This, in part, triggered the political transition of the October Revolution and the Civil War that followed in its aftermath. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviets (VTsIK) undermined the authority of the Provisional Government but also of the moderate socialist leaders of the Soviets. But the Grand Duke realised that he would have little support as ruler, so he declined the crown on 16 March [O.S. In early September, the Petrograd Soviet freed all jailed Bolsheviks and Trotsky became chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. Soldiers went hungry, lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons. Nicholas also sought to foster a greater sense of national unity with a war against a common and old enemy. The Russian Revolution What factors led to the Russian Revolution, and what was its outcome? Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I led to the slaughter of Russian troops and military defeats that undermined both the monarchy and Russian society to the point of collapse. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia. Nicholas believed in part that the shared peril and tribulation of a foreign war would mitigate the social unrest over the persistent issues of poverty, inequality, and inhumane working conditions. [61], A Lenin biographer, Robert Service, states he "laid the foundations of dictatorship and lawlessness. Main article: October Revolution. [60] While the Soviet-Marxist view has been largely discredited, an "anti-Stalinist" version of it attempts to draw a distinction between the "Lenin period" (1917–23) and the "Stalin period" (1923–53). Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until 13 October. That the order came from the top has long been believed, although there is a lack of hard evidence. [5], It was these views of Martov that predominated in a manifesto drawn up by Leon Trotsky (at the time a Menshevik) at a conference in Zimmerwald, attended by 35 Socialist leaders in September 1915. [29] Furthermore, the Bolshevik-controlled Moscow Regional Bureau of the Party also controlled the Party organizations of the 13 provinces around Moscow. This non-elected provisional government faced the revolutionary situation and the growing mood against the war by avoiding elections to the state Duma. The execution may have been carried out on the initiative of local Bolshevik officials, or it may have been an option pre-approved in Moscow should White troops approach Yekaterinburg. Their promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was fulfilled when the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. They sent troops to support the "Whites" with supplies of weapons, ammunition and logistic equipment being sent from the main Western countries but this was not at all coordinated. The incident, known as Bloody Sunday, started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution. ", Smith, Steve. Among them, in order of release date: The Russian Revolution has been used as a direct backdrop for select video games. The war was fought mainly between the Red Army ("Reds"), consisting of the uprising majority led by the Bolshevik minority, and the "Whites" – army officers and cossacks, the "bourgeoisie", and political groups ranging from the far Right, to the Socialist Revolutionaries who opposed the drastic restructuring championed by the Bolsheviks following the collapse of the Provisional Government, to the Soviets (under clear Bolshevik dominance). ", Tereshchuk, Andrei V. "The Last Autocrat Reassessing Nicholas II", Wade, Rex A. That Nicholas’ answer to the crises facing the Russian regime – and the answer of his father - was to look back to the seventeenth century and try to resurrect an almost late-medieval system, instead of reforming and modernizing Russia, was a major problem and source of discontent which directly led to the revolution. Alexander II assassinated by revolutionaries; succeeded by. In Finland, Lenin had worked on his book State and Revolution and continued to lead his party, writing newspaper articles and policy decrees. Lenin did not have any direct role in the revolution and due to his personal security he was hiding. [28] Previously, the Bolsheviks had been in the minority in the two leading cities of Russia—St. An ally in the left fraction of the Revolutionary-Socialist Party, with huge support among the peasants who opposed Russia's participation in the war, supported the slogan 'All power to the Soviets'. On the centennial of the start of the Russian Revolution, explore about the tumultuous events of 1917 as witnessed by Americans … [15] By 10 March [O.S. There were Several factors that led to the Russian Revolution in 1905 (i) Tsar’s Autocratic rule was not tolerable now. The problem was further compounded by the failure of Sergei Witte's land reforms of the early 20th century. The main problems were food shortages and rising prices. [17] Although few actively joined the rioting, many officers were either shot or went into hiding; the ability of the garrison to hold back the protests was all but nullified, symbols of the Tsarist regime were rapidly torn down around the city, and governmental authority in the capital collapsed – not helped by the fact that Nicholas had prorogued the Duma that morning, leaving it with no legal authority to act. Russia was backward, but not that backward, with a working class population of more than some 4-5% of the population. Germany declares war on Russia, causing a brief sense of patriotic union amongst the Russian nation and a downturn in striking. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But we must here immediately add: This leadership proved sufficient to guarantee the victory of the insurrection, but it was not adequate to transfer … (July 1972). The "communist revolution" was led by Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party followers. The All Russian Zemstvo Union for the Relief of Sick and Wounded Soldiers is created with Lvov as president. Miliukov gives his 'Is this stupidity or treason?' On November 7, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist rev… "The Revolution at One Hundred: Issues and Trends in the English Language Historiography of the Russian Revolution of 1917. In fact, historians such as Sheila Fitzpatrick have asserted that Lenin's exhortations for the Soviet Council to take power were intended to arouse indignation both with the Provisional Government, whose policies were viewed as conservative, and the Soviets themselves, which were viewed as subservients to the conservative government. Inflation dragged incomes down at an alarmingly rapid rate, and shortages made it difficult for an individual to sustain oneself. The 1905 Revolution also led to the creation of a Duma (parliament), that would later form the Provisional Government following February 1917. Trotsky is represented by a pig called Snowball who is a brilliant talker and makes magnificent speeches. [31] The Bolshevik Central Committee drafted a resolution, calling for the dissolution of the Provisional Government in favor of the Petrograd Soviet. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards (later the Red Army), over which they exerted substantial control.[1]. On the way to Russia, Lenin prepared the April Theses, which outlined central Bolshevik policies. Russian troops stopped retreating, and there were even some modest successes in the offensives that were staged that year, albeit at great loss of life. The February Revolution transformed the status and power of ordinary … Nevertheless, Kerensky still faced several great challenges, highlighted by the soldiers, urban workers, and peasants, who claimed that they had gained nothing by the revolution: The political group that proved most troublesome for Kerensky, and would eventually overthrow him, was the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin. The elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly took place 25 November 1917. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and, increasingly, the left-leaning urban middle class. The soldiers did not feel as if they were valuable, rather they felt as if they were expendable. Indeed, a revolutionary wave lasted until 1923. Unfulfilled hopes of democracy fueled revolutionary ideas and violent outbursts targeted at the monarchy. Their attitudes became known as the Zimmerwald Left. Russian Revolution who’s who – revolutionaries Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) was a left-wing political leader who vied with Lenin for control of Russia during the tumultuous months of 1917. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists. Lenin did not believe as Karl Marx that a socialist revolution presupposed a developed capitalist economy and not in a semi-capitalist country as Russia. So hard, in fact, that it led to the end of the Russian Empire. The outbreak of war in August 1914 initially served to quiet the prevalent social and political protests, focusing hostilities against a common external enemy, but this patriotic unity did not last long. However, Lenin played a crucial role in the debate in the leadership of the Bolshevik party for a revolutionary insurrection as the party in the autumn of 1917 received a majority in the soviets. 3 March],[17] stating that he would take it only if that was the consensus of democratic action. one in 1905 and one in 1917. i do not know much about the 1905. but the one in 1917 was led by not john lenin, but vladmir lenin. [citation needed], The rapid industrialization of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers (as mentioned above). To secure his position, Kerensky had to ask for Bolshevik assistance. Th… While rural agrarian peasants had been emancipated from serfdom in 1861, they still resented paying redemption payments to the state, and demanded communal tender of the land they worked. without German Revolution. A revolutionary wave caused by the Russian Revolution lasted until 1923, but despite initial hopes for success in the German Revolution of 1918–19, the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic, and others like it, no other Marxist movement at the time succeeded in keeping power in its hands. Less than one year later, the last area controlled by the White Army, the Ayano-Maysky District, directly to the north of the Krai containing Vladivostok, was given up when General Anatoly Pepelyayev capitulated in 1923. As the war dragged on inconclusively, war-weariness gradually took its toll. Though the Allied nations, using external interference, provided substantial military aid to the loosely knit anti-Bolshevik forces, they were ultimately defeated.[37]. However, Kerensky lost control after the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917, and the conditions of their imprisonment grew stricter and talk of putting Nicholas on trial increased. He was now held personally responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. [21] On 16 March [O.S. Lenin had been living in exile in neutral Switzerland and, due to democratization of politics after the February Revolution, which legalized formerly banned political parties, he perceived the opportunity for his Marxist revolution. A series of political crises – see the chronology below – in the relationship between population and government and between the Provisional Government and the Soviets (which developed into a nationwide movement with a national leadership). [39] This all amounted to large-scale discontent. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the most significant events in the 20 th century. Many sections of the country had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocracy. Between 1890 and 1910, the population of the capital, Saint Petersburg, swelled from 1,033,600 to 1,905,600, with Moscow experiencing similar growth. Bolshevik members of the Duma are arrested; they are later tried and exiled to. Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants. ", Smith, S. A. [49] Leon Trotsky said that the goal of socialism in Russia would not be realized without the success of the world revolution. Millions of Russians had been either killed or wounded. In one 1904 survey, it was found that an average of 16 people shared each apartment in Saint Petersburg, with six people per room. They also established Soviet power in the newly independent republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia and Ukraine. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. Russian Zemstvo Union for the Julian calendar, which was stopped on 14 March [ O.S critical. Corrupt and inefficient Tsar who never paid attention to the allied forces answer definitely enough: Conscious tempered. They are later tried and exiled to to support democratic reforms revolutionary situation and the Revisionist view stories right. Courts, and teachers joined the workers 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded powers was complex the! 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