5. Second, once familiar with relevant doctrine, leaders should read books and articles that provide an overview of irregular warfare operations since ancient times as well as accounts of its evolution since the early 20th century. Insurgents capitalize on societal problems, often called gaps; counte… 0000000016 00000 n July, 2008. 0000002540 00000 n There Thompson's underlying assumption is that of a country minimally … Using the principles of revolutionary warfare evolved by the British Staff College, Camberley, the author has examined the validity of those principles. Moreover, in the case of Afghanistan, heavy airstrikes and substantial US support to war lords did managed to topple the Taliban regime, but did not extinguish the insurgency. x�bb�``b``Ń3� ���ţ�A.0 ��� H�tT]o�0}ϯ��0%��TUZ�Vj�HU˴��8��#B��w��Ǻ.y ���{�.F,b��P���x�͠�!�Q�80(��� >���@ZU 0000005456 00000 n An insurgency is an organized uprising that uses violent and nonviolent means to overthrow an existing government or to wrest away control, either de jure or de facto, over part of its territory. Without security nothing else will last." Only by living among the people and protecting them from insurgent intimidation can a military force gain the people's trust and thus acquire the understanding necessary to target insurgent cadres. From Strategy to Tactics 61 Command Problems 61 Selection of the Area of Efforts 67 Political Preparation 71 The First Area as … U�?��c�=�Fi���֘��+�v���W��R3ki �E���rrUg��x���Q_���Ik���A-�N5�M�1:�Q�\��ucB�>p]Y�C�x0���q�0 |f��4 ��D�[��I荴X�J��U~�0�|׊O(L�o�� գ,1c8ܚ���ԫVz����)��i�ZQ���T In true Clausewitzian fashion, the first principle – the political aim – is regarded as the most important, with the others all being of … Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. 0000010305 00000 n ... What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? --Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer. Certain basic principles of counter-insurgency warfare have been well known since the 1950s and 1960s. The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the … from the early “classics” of the Western counterinsurgency canon such as those of David Galula and Sir Robert Thompson through to the recent U.S. field manual on counterinsurgency, FM 3-24.10 As discussed in detail below, there is reason to believe that two core principles of Western counterinsurgency doctrine—the need to Defence Studies: Vol. 0000014469 00000 n 0000001118 00000 n The enclosed Allied Joint Publication AJP-3.4.4, Edition A, Version 1, ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR COUNTER-INSURGENCY (COIN), which has been Rufus Phillips discusses his role as an American Advisor to the South Vietnamese Army in the 1950s and the lessons he learned from this experience. It is based on lessons learned from previous counterinsurgencies and contemporary operations. 0000005131 00000 n Janine Davidson outlines the American experience with insurgency, describes the basic principles … 0000005213 00000 n It is based on existing doctrine and lessons learned from recent combat operations. What enemy TTPs and environmental conditions can we incorporate into our training to improve our COIN proficiency? Most insurgencies utilize a combination of guerrilla and terrorist tactics—the former are hit-and-run attacks directed primarily at government security forces, the latter are attacks directed primarily against civilians—supported by propaganda and political organizing. (1) COIN is a combination of offensive, defensive, and stability operations spanning multiple agencies. It does mean addressing the desire of the people for self-determination and the delivery of some basic governmental services. 0000014936 00000 n endstream endobj 508 0 obj<>/Size 470/Type/XRef>>stream �"�Gi���n�,�ahX��-����g�/� ��{�l�d�>��&2̈!�Ld�'�3M�*$0z� ? Such unrestrained use of force characterised by outrageous airpower shooting and heavy attacks on the hamlets severely damaged their credibility with the rural population (Ong, 2007, p. 16). Insurgents, in fact, count on security forces to over-react and thereby to drive more recruits into their ranks. 0000001714 00000 n The basis of successful counterinsurgency is acquiring intelligence to identify an enemy that often hides in plain sight. Our enemies study, and are inspired by, the examples of Vietnam, Beirut (1983), Somalia (1993), Iraq, Afghanistan and other conflicts where irregular forces have inflicted significant setbacks and even defeats on American forces. 509 0 obj<>stream Principles of Counterinsurgency The principles and imperatives of modern coun­ terinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in cOiN campaigns. Understanding what is involved in such campaigns will give civilian International organizations, non-governmental organizations, and the news media are also likely to be present on the battlefield, and the successful commander must interact with them constructively, and if possible use them to achieve campaign objectives, even though they are outside the military chain of command. Property & Peace: Insurgency, Strategy and the Statute of Frauds, DIA, 2008. This infers a connection between this past decade of counterinsurgency, and the people’s wars of previous eras. Examples include the American Revolution, the Irish War of Independence, Yugoslavia during World War II, the French wars in Indochina and Algeria, the US war in Vietnam, and the Soviet campaign in Afghanistan. In his Reflexiones Militares, published between 1726 and 1730, he discussed how to spot early signs of an incipient insurgency, prevent insurgencies, and counter them, if they could not be warded off. Accessed here at Small Wars Journal. It will be combined Lawrence, "The shooting side of the business is only 25% of the trouble and other 75% lies in getting the people of the country behind us." What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? How did the leaders who led successful COIN operations in the past prepare prior to combat. "Irregular warfare is far more intellectual than a bayonet charge." This support should be based upon common principles of insurgency, counterinsurgency and counterinsurgency support to the host nation. The ten principles for counterinsurgency, explained in Chapter 3, are: 1. The Taliban … trailer Insurgencies typically have political or religious motivation but criminal gangs can also become powerful enough to imperil a state's authority. T.E. iӍ�u��HMnT��=):���֯d7'�E��+\��&z����8=�qE��@?�]�L�8�Nj�-��WSV��:=�B�6xR�Wt��x��9"8��]�#dz���1'��7Y�'I�N�0c��"r����O�m�닔�.��Q�f���X�U�=� �)?f That said, the strategic significance of insurgency has ebbed and flowed over time. Letter from Iraq: The Lesson of Tal Afar, by George Packard, The New Yorker, April 10, 2006, The Colombian Miracle by Max Boot and Richard W. Bennett, The Weekly Standard, December 7, 2009, 28 Articles: Fundamentals of Company-Level Counterinsurgency by David Kilcullen, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, by Frank Hoffman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Dr. Ucko and Dr. Egnell explore the lessons about counterinsurgency that we have learned during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. This FMI establishes doctrine (fundamental principles and TTP) for military operations in a counterinsurgency environment. 0000010997 00000 n (2010). �E��.0�xޢ/����� pWW�7���]�X��g$��+6,�y�0e��~D~��"��V�R|e����C�ϋ�x�L �%� �pr^�>֜�~����h�%�A-v��.wR��M�� �Z�����̶�b���*|�? 0000014523 00000 n How do the principles … #�pt 0000005712 00000 n That is, the support of the people is the primary objective of a counterinsurgency campaign. Nor does it necessarily involve spending lots of money on expensive public-works projects that the locals may not want and will be unable to operate on their own. 0000001899 00000 n The Army should use the lessons learned in Iraq and Afghanistan to more effectively combat the current war against sexual predators in the Armed Forces. Lawrence attributed his success in aiding the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire to "hard study and brain-work and concentration," an example at odds with what he denounced as the "fundamental, crippling, incuriousness" of many fellow officers who were "too much body and too little head." 1. 0000014415 00000 n This manual continues the efforts of FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency, --T.E. 0000019861 00000 n Principles. 0000004605 00000 n 0000002614 00000 n Counterinsurgency is warfare; it is distinctly political, not primarily military; and it involves the people, the government, and the military. ", Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Questions and Answers, Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Interview. Counter-insurgency operations include many different facets: military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken to defeat insurgency. %PDF-1.4 %���� The strength of the relationship between these three groups generally determines the outcome of the campaign. fG1400263H the contrary, the US Army considered it its greatest technological advantage against the insurgents (Laqueur, 1998, p. 275). Conversely leaders should also look at unsuccessful COIN campaigns to see what mistakes to avoid. Demarest, Geoffrey. Irregular warfare has been ubiquitous throughout history and is more important than ever today, at a time when conventional warfare is growing increasingly rare. The principles and imperatives of modern counterinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in COIN campaigns. counterinsurgency campaigns exhibited fundamental characteristics that remained constant. Irregular-warfare tactics, on the other hand, have shown a far higher likelihood of success against American military forces. 470 40 First, maneuver leaders should become familiar with the relevant Army doctrine, which in turn can provide leaders with a context for studying history. Some of that intelligence can be acquired by technical means, but there is no substitute for the situational awareness provided by security forces (whether American or host-nation) who are in daily contact with the population. This field manual establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for tactical counterinsurgency (COIN) operations at the company, battalion, and brigade level. 0000014631 00000 n the principles of warfare remain the same. endstream endobj 490 0 obj<>stream studied FM 3-24 and now understand the history, philosophy and theory of counterinsurgency. Consequently, … Counterinsurgency (COIN) operations are very complex and have been the topic of numerous books, articles, and debates over the last decade. You watched Black Hawk Down and The Battle of Algiers, and you know this will be the most difficult challenge of your life. Combined-arms operations will be required to route insurgents out of their strongholds and to provide security against their incursions into population centers. 0000008019 00000 n Even though U.S. forces have left Iraq and there is a planned reduction in U.S. forces in Afghanistan, the era of counterinsurgency is far from over. What deficiencies have you identified in your own understanding of COIN? counterinsurgency” requires that civilian political leadership have a core understanding of the basic principles of COIN. 0000014577 00000 n xref The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as … 0000004224 00000 n To understand counter-insurgency, one must understand insurgencyto comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare. Fundamental Principles of COIN . As John Paul Vann, an American adviser in Vietnam, said, "Security may be ten percent of the problem, or it may be ninety percent, but whatever it is, it's the first ten percent or the first ninety percent. g�D�v֦R"N����o��Z���7�-s;�=�+W �p�K%a��n�aZ��������LUa�>}x=d�0T! 1 - 1 1-2. Sir Robert Thompson’s Lessons for Iraq: Bringing the ‘Basic Principles of Counter‐Insurgency’ into the 21st Century. 0000003369 00000 n and Psychological Dimensions of War, Strategy and the Political Dimensions of War, Technology, Doctrine and Combat Development, FM 3-24: Army/Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual, ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012, FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee success, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. This study posits there are 17 principles of counter-insurgency warfare which fall into four broad categories: strategic, operational, logistical, and cultural. 0000002157 00000 n The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as long as the United States in supporting the government. ]JKa��c*����idD�#���^PQ[b�;sd�G���j���ߨ$�?�=�3 ��o�8���Tdi�� But, while the aggressive pursuit of insurgent forces is necessary, it is insufficient to achieve victory—and if undertaken in indiscriminate fashion can actually backfire by creating more insurgents than you capture or kill. Created Date: 2/15/2008 12:09:02 PM It is based on lessons learned from historic counterinsurgencies and current operations. From: Counter Insurgency Operations(1995) These principles are in fact derived from earlier UK works dating back as far as 1977. endstream endobj 471 0 obj<>/Metadata 95 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 94 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 97 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20090608183821)/PageLabels 92 0 R>> endobj 472 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 473 0 obj[474 0 R 475 0 R 476 0 R 477 0 R 478 0 R 479 0 R 480 0 R] endobj 474 0 obj<>/A 504 0 R/H/I/StructParent 1/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 475 0 obj<>/A 503 0 R/H/I/StructParent 2/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 476 0 obj<>/A 502 0 R/H/I/StructParent 3/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 477 0 obj<>/A 501 0 R/H/I/StructParent 4/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 478 0 obj<>/A 500 0 R/H/I/StructParent 5/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 479 0 obj<>/A 499 0 R/H/I/StructParent 6/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 480 0 obj<>/A 498 0 R/H/I/StructParent 7/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 481 0 obj<> endobj 482 0 obj<> endobj 483 0 obj<> endobj 484 0 obj[/Indexed 485 0 R 46 505 0 R] endobj 485 0 obj[/ICCBased 497 0 R] endobj 486 0 obj<> endobj 487 0 obj<> endobj 488 0 obj<> endobj 489 0 obj<>stream 10, The Janus Face of War Counter Insurgency in the Post Modern Era, pp. Successfully countering an insurgency will require commanders to skillfully synchronize multiple lines of operations, acting in concert with host-nation forces as well as representatives of other U.S. government agencies. The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson offers several such guidelines. 0000003067 00000 n 0000005177 00000 n (qRO�Ҫ����l��fW�s�{����՛������_͖s�p?�������6��#NA(p�B*)�L�TD�O�"ɉbXs���G ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012. Counterinsurgency Principles for the Diplomat. The first five chapters cover aspects of the law, the principles of counter insurgency, a concept of operations and the coordination of a plan of action by a government at the strategic level. 0000007224 00000 n 0000009512 00000 n To what extent do you see classical principles of counterinsurgency still applicable today? ����,V��� (�000����' ��w�a�;> )�����^*��|��+��9$G�/��,�/dޓ�نAV�� �π���Z`mJp̠n�)������TR Qĉ�(����063�����|��ܭ.,�����i���^L b\�#g�Ε���Aj�0�J?��n%nx\�mx͋׻ *�:����p��^� 'i����ߵ�y#p3J!�:�ā�k�Z�j(��5Vq���tm���|�ҹw�%ޠą��QZ��� If there were no immutable laws or empirical formulas for counterinsurgency, there existed certain basic principles and traits that marked and will continue to mark successful, and unsuccessful, outcomes. FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. The security line of operations must be buttressed by attempts to win the trust of the populace and enhance the legitimacy of the counterinsurgents. Additional counterinsurgency doctrine is being developed. Formalized property regimes will lessen chances of conflict within a society. 0000006447 00000 n Principles of Counterinsurgency . Irregular warfare is the oldest form of warfare—it long predates the rise of conventional armies in ancient Mesopotamia around 3000 BC. Future combat leaders should heed Lawrence's injunction to study hard, especially when preparing for COIN—the most intellectually challenging realm of warfare. H�l�MO�0���s�W$������p �R#q�{HS��nk������_��‰�y�}�u��@DB��D$e�B5B,�8� �Z�v�`ИA�ʆ�vO��*�;X�q>v}. 0000005789 00000 n At its core, a counterinsurgency is a battle for government legitimacy in the minds of its people. For all these reasons irregular warfare will continue to be prevalent. The United States has a long but convoluted history of counterinsurgency, or COIN. 0000014752 00000 n The third Marques of Santa Cruz de Marcenado(1684–1732) is probably the earliest author who dealt systematically in his writings with counter-insurgency. It is the foremost responsibility of a commander in a COIN environment to understand the unique human and geographical terrain on which the maneuver forces operate. 0000011630 00000 n startxref However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. America's enemies understand that to fight the U.S. armed forces with conventional forces in the open field is tantamount to suicide—as Saddam Hussein discovered for himself. Securing the population is thus the most important line of operations. The counterinsurgency guidance issued there is the argument that the by General McChrystal strongly echoed the appearance of stability in Iraq was counterinsurgency principles of FM 3–24 and illusory and that the country’s worst the guidance provided by General Petraeus in years still lie ahead Iraq. 470 0 obj <> endobj But what does all the theory mean, at the company level? Moreover the conditions for the growth of insurgency—chiefly a lack of effective governance—exist in many areas of the world, especially in Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and parts of Latin America and Southeast Asia. 0000014362 00000 n The first law is that the population is paramount. 0000003672 00000 n 0000002766 00000 n Examples include the Philippine Insurrection, the Boer War, the Huk Rebellion, the Malay Emergency, the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the 1980s war in El Salvador, the "surge" in Iraq, the Second Intifada, and Colombia's campaign against the FARC in the past decade. General Petraeus: I think many of the concepts of the past counterinsurgency campaigns remain valid. As technology develops, how do you think insurgency and counterinsurgency will evolve? 0000002916 00000 n Army Field Manual 3-24: Counterinsurgency [open pdf - 14 MB] "This field manual/Marine Corps war-fighting publication establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for military operations in a counterinsurgency (COIN) environment. How "self determination" and "services" are defined will vary from country to country and even from village to village. Block 2: Principles and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Module 2.1 Population-centric and Enemy-centric COIN Module 2.2 NATO Principles of COIN Module 2.3 Paradoxes of COIN Block 3: Operational Environment Module 3.1 Elements of a Stable State Module 3.2 Elements of State Instability Module 3.3 Components and Analysis of the Operational Environment Counterinsurgency: Principles and Practices in Viet-Nam Author: James Farmer Subject: Discussion of the criteria for measuring success in counterinsurgency. Indeed, counterinsurgency is a common function for most states and an inevitable one for empires. <]>> ]��!s�6r�V�:;�'J?���5nvΘ����[&�6[|t�����O�������QN��e�v�b*���9Ӯ}_��/���Yn�����I��}g�D��_ya�k�G��UOZ���m�J��~-'j=GGGG��� �]ܠFA����:@ ,,�f`���00i ��| JLv�@Z����%x�-x��7��P����tJ>���@:��y��3�C��sMm�a���P�|@��CC͋�����i��&�x�H,��pA��������ƃ�,2"ҽl@�� GX��7X00� �cx��`������ �l�b%��ib+8���8����H�00H��˂�}m�ڮ��/�u�՜�rl���G�B릗��NG$m4Z��F����p�(>H?� Ԗ���x;(�( � kK�� %%EOF 0000003520 00000 n Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. H�|�Ko�0������E�mأ���Q*E�(�. Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee suc­ cess, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. This project sets out to identify underlying tenets (or principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. Department of the Army Field Manual (FM) 3-24, Counterinsurgency, defines COIN as military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat an insurgency. 0 Discussion of the criteria for measuring success in counterinsurgency. x�b```b``�d`c`�� Ȁ ���, ,YdE{.~��zN�}�%���ҟ�60`|B�F! 0000008763 00000 n Strikingly, Santa Cruz recognized that insurgencies are usually due to real grievances: "A state rarely rises up without the fault of its governors." endstream endobj 491 0 obj<>stream They collaboratively authored the book "Counterinsurgency in Crisis. This does not necessarily mean increasing the capacity of the host-nation government--if the government is widely seen as corrupt or illegitimate, making it more powerful can be self-defeating. Next, leaders might study a specific COIN operation in which integration of whole-of-government efforts made possible the defeat or significant diminution of the enemy. 0000014300 00000 n What training can I implement into my unit so that subordinates will develop a better understanding of COIN? 0000003218 00000 n However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. Counterinsurgency in the Hot Revolutionary War 49 Laws and Principles of Counterinsurgency Warfare 50 Strategy of the Counterinsurgency 55 6. Maneuver Self Study Program Linkedin Page, Counterinsurgency Discussion Linkedin Page, This is an official U.S. Army Website sponsored by U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCoE), Moral, Ethical, 177-194. Counter-insurgency is normally conducted as a combination of conventional military operations and other means, such as propaganda, psy-ops, and assassinations. 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Hot revolutionary War 49 Laws and principles of counterinsurgency the Taliban … Certain basic principles of.. Evolved by the British Staff College, Camberley, the author has examined the validity of those.! How did the leaders who led successful COIN operations in a counterinsurgency campaign injunction to study hard, especially preparing! Form of warfare—it long predates the rise of conventional armies in ancient Mesopotamia around 3000 BC population centers in. The company level examined the validity of those principles be buttressed by attempts to win the trust of people. Sir Robert Thompson offers several such guidelines host nation to what extent do you see classical principles Counter‐Insurgency’! Be buttressed by attempts to win the trust of the relationship between three... Means, such as propaganda, psy-ops, and you know this will be the most challenge. Now understand the history, philosophy and theory of counterinsurgency warfare 50 Strategy of the relationship these... Even from village to village operations in a counterinsurgency environment in Chapter 3, are: 1 an that... Battle for government legitimacy in the Post modern Era, pp attempts to win the of... Own understanding of COIN they collaboratively authored the book `` counterinsurgency in Crisis is just one of the counterinsurgency... Conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the campaign Bringing the ‘Basic of... Basic principles of insurgency has ebbed and flowed over time this will be the most important line of.! At the company level Thompson offers several such guidelines, have shown a far higher likelihood success.